Well Jen, I think its disgusting that someone would take a picture of any child and do that. For goodness sakes, its a toy bow and deer. No different than nerf guns, or the cap guns I grew up with. Nothing wrong at all teaching the basics and focusing on safety. I bought both of my kids mathew's genesis bows last Christmas; were 8 and 7 at the time. I teach them bow basics and safety and we turn our shooting sessions into quality family time. Nothing wrong with that.
As for the taking of an animals life, I believe the child needs to have the mental capacity to be able to handle that exposure. Taking an animals life is serious business and something I don't believe an 8 year old can fully appreciate. I personally will evaluate my children and determine the "right time" for them to take their first animal. If I had to put an age limit, I'd say no earlier than 12. I know its every sportsmen dream to be able to hunt with and teach their children the magnificent world of hunting but I also believe the child needs to be mentally capable of processing that taking a life is serious business. Its not a video game.